sexta-feira, 7 de junho de 2013 Biblioteca online

Virtual (Br)others and (Re)sisters – Authentic Black Fraternity and Sorority Identity on the Internet

Matthew W. Hughey

Publicado originalmente em Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Volume 37, Number 5, October 2008: 528-560.

Recently, the Internet has become the focus of immense speculation regarding the social construction of identity and cultural “authenticity.” However, examinations of virtual communities such as blogs, multiuser domains, and chat rooms have largely ignored nonwhite, especially African American, virtual communities (VCs). Through participant observation, content analysis, and personal interviews, this article analyzes a VC dedicated to members of African American fraternities and sororities, generally referred to as black
Greek letter organizations (BGLOs). Findings show that BGLO virtual authenticity is accomplished via (1) the making of “brothers” and “others” based on symbolic boundaries of exclusion and inclusion and (2) the deployment of themes of resistance based on emotions of both sufferance and success. Implications suggest that interrogations of how virtuality constrains and enables processes of “authentic” racial identity formation as well as configurations of racist narratives and ideologies can yield added insights regarding the raced character of structure/agency, symbolic boundaries, and the social use of emotions.
Keywords: racial identity; Internet; Greek (fraternity and sorority); symbolic boundaries; emotions

quarta-feira, 5 de junho de 2013 Biblioteca online

Excavating Second Life: Cyber-Archaeologies, Heritage and Virtual Communities

RODNEY HARRISON

Publicado originalmente em Journal of Material Culture, vol. 14, n.1, 2009: 75–106. Londres: SAGE Publications.

 

Abstract:

While the anthropology of online communities has emerged as a significant area of research, there has been little discussion of the possibilities of the archaeology of virtual settlements, defined here as interactive synthetic environments in which users are sensually immersed and which respond to user input. Bartle (in Designing Virtual Worlds, 2003: 1) has described such virtual settlements as ‘places where the imaginary meets the real’. In this sense, an examination of the role of heritage in virtual settlements has the potential to shed light on the role of heritage in both ‘real’ and ‘imagined’ communities more generally. This article develops the concept of ‘cyberarchaeology’ (originally devised by Jones in his 1997 article, ‘Virtual Communities’) to study the virtual material culture of the settlement Second Life, and in particular, its explicit programme of heritage conservation. A survey of heritage places in Second Life suggests that the functions of heritage in virtual settlements may be far more limited than in the actual world, functioning primarily as a structure of governance and control through the establishment of the rationale for (virtual) land ownership and the production of a sense of community through memorials which produce a sense of ‘rootedness’ and materialize social memory. Such functions of heritage are consistent with recent discussion of the role of heritage in western societies. Nonetheless, this study of heritage and cyber-archaeology provides insights into the ways in which the notions of heritage are transforming in the early 21st century in connection with the proliferation of virtual environments, and the challenge this provides to contemporary society.

Key Words: ◆ community ◆ cyber-archaeology ◆ heritage ◆ Second Life ◆ virtual settlements

terça-feira, 4 de junho de 2013 Erratas no jornalismo online

Uma das questões ainda pouco discutidas entre os estudos do jornalismo online ou webjornalismo gira em torno das formas de retificação dos erros por parte dos jornais e/ou portais de informação. E é este o tema de pesquisa de Lívia Vieira no Mestrado em Jornalismo (POSJOR) da UFSC. No último dia 27 de maio a pesquisadora publicou uma breve reflexão no site objETHOS – Observatório da Ética Jornalística(projeto do Departamento de Jornalismo e POSJOR da UFSC). A questão é: “após o erro, de que forma o veículo jornalístico age em relação ao seu leitor?” Leia o artigo na íntegra aqui.

Não há nada que incomode mais o jornalista do que o erro, seja a grafia incorreta no nome de uma fonte ou um grave equívoco de apuração. Poderíamos listar aqui diversos erros que ocorrem na imprensa brasileira, com destaque para os webjornais, nos quais a velocidade de publicação muitas vezes atropela a precisão. Uma breve observação na seção Erramos, do Jornal Folha de S. Paulo na internet, mostra que os erros são diários e recorrentes. No entanto, esta reflexão parte do momento seguinte: após o erro, de que forma age o veículo jornalístico em relação a seu leitor?

sexta-feira, 31 de maio de 2013 Biblioteca online

When the going gets tough, the tough go photoshopping: September 11 and the newslore of vengeance and victimization

Russell Frank

Publicado em New media and Society, vo.. 6, n. 5, 2004: pp. 633-658. Versão online: http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/6/5/633.

Abstract
The terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11 2001 inspired an outpouring of electronic folklore, particularly ‘photoshops’ (humorous digitally-altered photographs). This material is of two types. One, the newslore of vengeance, consists of fantasies of  annihilation or humiliation aimed at Osama bin Laden or Afghanistan. The other, the newslore of victimization, expresses bewilderment at the role of fate or chance in who lived and died on that terrible day. This article analyzes the newslore of September 11 in light of Elliott Oring’s ‘unspeakability’ hypothesis: the material expresses emotions that were too raw to be covered in the news media and
thus functions as both an outlet for those emotions and a protest against the decorousness of the press.

Key words
computer-mediated communication • digitally-altered photographs • folklore • jokes • netlore & news media • photoshop

quarta-feira, 29 de maio de 2013 Biblioteca online

Nation-building and the diaspora on Leonenet: a case of Sierra Leone in cyberspace

ROBERT TYNES
University at Albany/SUNY, USA

Publicado em New media and Society, vo.. 9, n. 3, 2007: pp. 497-518. Versão online: http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/9/3/497.

Abstract
The nation-state of Sierra Leone crumbled during the 1990s. A decade-long civil war destroyed the state and brutalized the national imaginings. Despite the lack of institutional structure, some members of its society chose to keep the nation alive through discourse on a listserv, an email forum called Leonenet. Using a multi-methodological approach that incorporated content analysis, interviews with cultural informants, ethnography and participant observation, the findings of the study reported in this article indicate that list members had created a virtual nation, defined as any community that communicates in cyberspace, whose collective discourse and/or actions are aimed towards the building, binding, maintenance, rebuilding or rebinding of a nation. Leonenet was a diasporic communicative space where Sierra Leone’s state-related symbols were generated and then held in conceptual escrow, waiting for the institutional structure to return.

Key words
diaspora • nation-building • Sierra Leone • virtual community• virtual nation

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